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    Gewurztraminer White grapes This distinctive grape variety is known by its friends simply as Gewürtz but sometimes also as Traminer. It provides interese aromas, reminiscent of lychee, rose petals and spice.

    Gewürtraminer often smells sweet, but may produce an element fi suprise, by tasting dry. It tends to grow best in cooler climates where there  is a decent levet of acidity in the soil. Alsace Gewürztraminers are the most successful, with wines from other territories tending to be bland in comparison.

     Gewürztramineris found in Alsace, Germany, Northern Italy, Eastern Europe, and the USA.



    Muscat grapesThis grape makes the seafood simple par excellence. Offering hints of apple and gooseberry, the wine becomes dry, savoury and tangy, particlarly when aged in contact with the lees - the yeast deposit left after fermantation. Attempts to age Muscadet in oak are not guaranteed to meet with success as the grape's structure and body tend to preclude assimilation with the wood.

     The Muscadet grape thrives in the Loire Valley.



     All members of the large Muscat family share a floral, grapey, and aromatic charanter. Depending on when it's picked, Muscat is capable of making dry to sweet wines, from the very lightest to the biggest 'stickies', such as the Liqueur Muscats of Australia. The tast of sweet Muscats is redolent of raisins and  oranges. These wines may be fortified with grape brandy during the fermentation process in order to preserve sweetness. The Muscat is often blended with other varieties of grape in order to increase complexity and flavour. It is used in the well-known Italian wine Asti Spumante.

     Muscat is grown throughout Europe anda also in Australia.



    Trebbiano Pinot Noir Grapes  The most widely planted white grape in Italy, the soil and warm climate help to create wines with highsh acidity. Indeed, because of its high acidity it is sometimes belnded with red wines. Trebbianos tend to be medium bedied and with zesty fruit character, Trebbiano is usually fermented is stainless steel vats and may be matured in oak in orded to add some complexity to the flavour.

    Italy and France, where the grape is used in the blend for Vin de Pays des Côtes de Gascogne. It also makes excellent distilling material for both Cognac and Armagnac.



     Very aromatic, Viognier's hallmark notes are of apricot, peach, and honey. Lush and flesh, the dry wines produced by the Viognier grape are so aromatic that they can seem sweet on the palate. Viognier is a difficult grape to grow successfully. Indeed, modern winemaking techniques are being developed to encourage a consistency in the taste. In France it tends to do best on the small hillsides outside Lyons.

     Viognier takes centr stage in Condrieu (Northern Rhône) and is also doing well in Southern France, Chile, Australia, and California.



    From the Rhône Valley, France's Marsanne makes full-bodied, fat and weighty wines, with flavours of peach and toast, and can even taste nutty when mature. Marsanne may be blended with Roussanne.


    Pinot Blanc GrapesPINOT BLANC - Pinot Bianco GRAPES

     Pinot Blanc invariably makes dry, apple-scented and flavoured white wines, with a touch of honey and a whiff of spice in Alsace. Very adaptable with food, Pinot Blanc is also star material for sparkling wine.

     Pinot Blanc is another grape to originate in the Alsace region of France and also in North America.



    Chardonnay Grapes

    Chardonnay Grapeswhite-grapes

    Today world's most popular white grape, Chadonnay express its varietal character in many forms: from the racy, steely, and nervy wines of Chablis, to the fuller-bodied, buttery rich wine made in the Napa Vally, California. 

    Sauvignon Blanc Grapes

    Sauvignon Blanc Grapeswhite-grapes 

    This is an aromatic grape, which ripens early and is mostly grown in cool-climate vineyards.   Its range extends from featherweight tangy, dry white wines like Sauvignon de Touraine, to the ripe, almost tropical-like fruitiness obtained in California, where the less common addition of oak is often adopted and labelled 'Fume Blanc'. Sauvignon Blanc thrives on chalk or gravel soil.

    Riesling Grapes

    Riesling Grapeswhite-grapes 

    The Riesling grape is seen by many as the most versatile variety of white grape in the world. It is without doubt a class act with a number of strengths, not least its ability to outperform Chardonnay in the longevity stakes.

    Semillon Grapes

    Semillon Grapeswhite-grapes

    Arguably one fo the most underrated verieties of grapes, Sémillon, Bordeaux's most widely planted white grape, makes delicious dry and sweet wines. With an almost honeyed texture, Sémillon is often partnered by Sauvignon Blanc to lift the acidity, although Australian winemakers also blend Sémillon Trebbiano.

    Chenin Blanc Grapes

    Chenin Blanc Grapeswhite-grapes

    An extremely versatile variety of grapes, Chenin Blanc is capable of making dry and crisp white wines that are great as an aperitif, through to medium, unctuous and sweet styles. Due to the keeen and vibrant acidity often found in Chenin Blanc grape, they make brilliant food wines and can stay in good shape for many years after the vitange.

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  • A difficult 'customer' described by one well-known winemaker as a 'moving target of a grape variety', on top form Pinot Noir can make the most complex and hedonistic of red wines.

    pinot noir  Pinot Noir has fewer colouring pigments than other dark-skinned varieties, so it can appear to be lighter or more aged, when compared to wines such and almost inky on occasions. There are exceptions to the rule, such as the wines from the likes of Romanée Conti in Burgundy's Côte D'Or.

     Pinot Noir is a prime example of the importance of terroir, the term used to describe the growing conditions of the grape such as the soil, drainage, microclimate, and exposure to the sun. Pinot Noir is an excellent wine when the grapes have been grown in Burgungy but an altogether more challenging prospect when grown elsewhere.

     Carneros and the Central Coast of California, Oregonn the Yarra Valleym and cooler spots in Australia, are consistently producing 'typical' and different expressions of Pinot Noir. New Zealand, via Martinborough, Marlborough, Central Otago and South Africam via Walker Bay, are also now producing decent Pinot Noir. The Pinot Noir nose is often reminiscent of paspberry, strawberry, and redcurrant when young, taking on subtle, earthy, leafy, prune-like aromas with age. It is also one the classic Champagne varieties.

    Burgundy,  Alsace, Champagne and Sancerre in France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, and California, Oregon ans Washington State in the United States.


    Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes

    cabernet sauvignon Grapeswhite-grapes

    One of the word's most popular black grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon's deep colour, blackcurrant aroma and flavour is the backbone of many is the backbone of many full-bodid red wines.

    Merlot Grapes

    Merlot Grapes white-grapes 

     A member of the Bordeaux family, Merlot, in constrast to Cabernet Sauvignon, is soft, fruity, fleshy, and less tannic. It's the principal grape variety in the wines of St Emilion and Pomerol, and is often blended with Cabernet Franc.

    Syrah Grapes

    Syrah Grapeswhite-grapes

    The Hill of Hermitage and vineyards steeply overlooking the Rhône provide the home of Syrah and one of the most famous place names associated with this great grape variety. Hermitage, Cornas and Côte Rôtie are full-bodied red wines, while Crozes Hermitage and St Jopeph are generally a touch lighter. Syrah is a hardy grape, growing well in poor soil, such as the

    Other Red Grapes

    other red Grapeswhite-grapes

    An extremely versatile variety of grapes, Chenin Blanc is capable of making dry and crisp white wines that are great as an aperitif, through to medium, unctuous and sweet styles. Due to the keeen and vibrant acidity often found in Chenin Blanc grape, they make brilliant food wines and can stay in good shape for many years after the vitange.

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  • Quincy

    On the other side of Bourges, in the direction of Vierzon, you will find the small wine area of Quincy. The Quincy AC was recognised way back in 1936. The wines of Quincy have been among the elite of French viticulture for more than 60 years but they are hardly ever to be found outside their own area.

    This wine area in the centre of France, west of the Loire, and on the left bank of the Cher, had acquired a reputation by the Middle Ages. This French wine-growing area comprises just two communes: Brinay and Quincy, totalling about 180 hectares. The terraces on which the vines grow are covered with a mixture of sand and ancient gravel. The underlying strata consists of chalk-bearing clay. The Sauvignon Blanc grapes thrive particularly well on this poor soil.

  • Kraški slovenian wine

    Slovenian WineyardsAncient and famous Kraški Teran wine originates from Karšt. This is made from Refošc grapes which are related to the Italian variety of Refosco and the wine is said according to popular belief to work as a tonic for health because of its high concentration of lactic and amino acids in the wine and the presence of iron. The colour is ruby red with glints of purple and this Slovenian wine is very fruity with hints of redcurrant in both the bouquet and taste. This is a Slovenian wine with a velvet smooth texture that is not excessively alcoholic. Drinking this Slovenian wine at 16°C (60.8°F).

  • Ljutomer Ormoske Gorice Slovenian Wine

    Slovenian wine bottlesThe white Slovenian wines from this area are certainly among the best in Europe. Unfortunately the means are not to hand to make their wines better known. The Slovenian wines from the local cooperative Jeruzalem Ormoz should have a large market potential in Europe. You are unlikely to encounter such fine Pinot Blanc (Beli Pinot) anywhere else than from Ljutomer Ormoske Gorice. The bouquet is redolent of may blossom and other white flowers, perhaps with a hint of broom, and even fruit stone liquor (Slibowitz). The taste is very fresh with elegant and refined acidity, the relationship between alcohol, body, and fruit is perfect, and the price is a gift. Drinking temperature for this Slovenian wine is 10-12°C (50-53.6°F).

  • SloveniaN Wine

    Slovenian wine toursThe north of the country is mountainous while inland is either flat or gently undulating. The farthest south-east has a beautiful stretch of coastline. The climate is central European and continental with mountain influences in the north and Mediterranean one in the south. The summers are generally quite hot and the winters cold, though not normally extremely so.

    Slovenian Wine areas

    The small country of Slovenia has no fewer than fourteen different wine areas. These are grouped together in our website into three main areas.

  • In addition to the previously mentioned generic wines, Alto Adige also produces wines from strictly defined areas or 'crus'. The quality of these wines is often higher than the ordinary Alto Adige. All the wines named have their own DOC denomination.


    This wine area near Bolzano makes red wine at least 90% Schiava grapes, supplemented as needed with Pinot Nero or Lagrein. The colour is ruby red, with intensity and shade depending on vinification and proportion of grapes. Both nose and taste are mellow and fruity. A delicious but unpretentious wine. Drink at 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    This wine is made in the hills that jut out above the small town of Merano. The red is chiefly made with Schiava grapes is ruby colour, mellow and fruity scented and juicy and pleasant in taste. This is an unpretentious wine that is suitable for all occasions. Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).



    The vineyards of this wonderful wine can be found in the hills around Bolzano. The vines are the Schiava grape, although these may be supplemented with no more than 10% Pinot Nero and/or Lagrein, which contribute their own character. The colour is ruby to intense granite red, the nose subtle and seductive with a hint of wild violets and the taste is mellow and smooth, rounded, juicy, with light bitter almond aftertaste. This gorgeous wine keeps well. Drinking temperature is 57.2- 60.8°F (14- 16°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    The Terlano vineyards run parallel to the Adige river in the province of Bolzano. This white wine is made with Pinot Bianco (WeiEburgunder), Chardonnay, Riesling Halico (Welsch Riesling), Riesling Renano (Rheinriesling), Sylvaner (Silvaner), Riesling x Sylvaner (Mliller-Thurgau), or Sauvignon Blanc.

    These grapes can be used to make single grape wines comprising no less than 90% of them, or ordinary bianco with different proportions, which must be indicated. All of these wines are green-yellow when young, becoming more yellow with age. They have fresh acidity and are very aromatic in both nose and taste. Drink at (46.4-50°F (8- 10°C) except the Chardonnay varietals which are better at 50- 53.6°F (10- 12°C).

    There are also dry (extra brut) or less dry (brut) Spumante versions that are fresh, fruity, aromatic, and elegant. These make an excellent aperitif. Drink at (42.8-46.4°F (6- 8°C). Those wines that originate from the heart of the Terlano area are permitted to add Classico to their name.



    The vineyards of this denominated wine are sited relatively high, some of them above 2,000 feet (600 metres), which demands additional input from the growers. The area is situated close to Bolzano in the Isarco valley. Mainly white wines are produced here using grapes such as Pinot Grigio (Rulander), Sylvaner (Silvaner), Veltliner, Riesling x Sylvaner (Miiller-Thurgau), Kerner, and Traminer Aromatico (Gewürztraminer), and a small amount of red wine from Schiava, Lausner, and Leitacher grapes. The white wine has a green tinge and is fresh, subtle, fruity, and juicy.

    Pinot Grigio and Traminer Aromatico generally make wines with a bigger taste than the other wines.

    Drinking temperature is 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for Sylvaner, Veltliner, and Kerner and 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) for the others. The Klausner Leitacher is ruby red in colour, has a mild nose with freshly acidic and fulsome flavour. Drink it with red meat at 53.6-57.2°F (12-14°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    This is a very traditional wine area that mainly produces whites using Chardonnay, Kerner, Riesling x Sylvaner (Miiller-Thurgau), Pinot Bianco (WeiEburgunder), Pinot Grigio (Rulander), Riesling, and Traminer Aromatico (Gewürztraminer). A small amount of red is made from Schiava (Vernatsch) and Pinot Nero (Blauburgunder). The whites have a green tinge, fresh nose and taste, and are fruity and aromatic. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for Pinot Bianco and Kerner, 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) for Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Traminer Aromatico, and Miiller-Thurgau. The Schiava reds are ruby coloured, taste and smell delicious and fruity, and are suitable for serving throughout a meal. Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

    Pinot Nero reds are also ruby hued with a trace of orange and their characteristic nose has both vegetal and animal notes. The taste is filled with flavour but is mellow and well-balanced. There is a discernible bitterness in the aftertaste. Drink at 53.6-57.2°F (12-14°C).



    This is another well-known quality wine from the Alto Adige. As indicated in the name, the vineyards are close to Lake Caldaro. Superb reds are produced here using various types of Schiava grape, sometimes supplemented with Pinot Nero or Lagrein.

    *** the best italian WINE ***

     The colour varies between bright ruby and dark red while bouquet and taste are mellow, fruity, and elegant. A hint of bitter almond can be detected in the aftertaste.There are also Classico, and Classico Superiore from the heart of the area. The superior wine has 1 % more alcohol than the ordinary Caldaro and Caldaro Classico. Drink at 53.6- 57.2°F (12-14°C).

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    Alsace Grapes Wine With most French wines the area from which they originate is the most important information on the label. All wines in Alsace are Alsace AOC but they are identified by their grapes. A wine may be ordered in France as a Riesling, Sylvaner, Gewürtztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir, or Pinot Gris/ Tokay but everyone knows immediately that these are Alsace wines. Only the local place name is indicated on the labels of Muscat wines because there are different types of Muscat wine in France (such as the sweet wines of the south). No other area in France follows this practice.

  •    This is generic area wine. It is difficult to give an overview because each of the growers and winemakers uses their own blends and methods.

      The Trentino Bianco is made from Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco. It is pale golden yellow and a pleasant but unobtrusive. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C).

    *** the best italian WINE ***

    The better whites are of the single grape variety with their name alongside Trentino DOC on the label. The best are usually the Chardonnay Trentino wines but there are also some excellent wines made with Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Riesling Italico, Riesling Renano, Traminer Aromatico, and Miiller-Thurgau.

    Drink Pinot Grigio, Traminer, Miiller-Thurgau, and Chardonnay at 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) and 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for the rest. The subtle wine from the native Nosiola is worth considering though do not expect great miracles, rather the discovering of a very different grape. The wine is fine and delicate, pleasingly fruity in bouquet and taste with a slight bitterness in finish. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C).

    *** the best italian WINE ***

    Pinally there is an excellent sweet white wine made with Moscato Giallo. There is also a liquorous version of this wine, identified by the name Liquoroso.

    This is a first class after-dinner liqueur if well chilled to around 42.8-46.4°F (6-8°C). Pirst class sparkling wines are made with Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco. This Spumante is a remarkably fine aperitif. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C).

    Trentino Rosso DOC is made from Cabernet and Merlot and is almost always cask aged. Depending on the wine's origins it may be light and approachable or fullbodied and powerful. The full bodied type keeps well. Drink the light and amenable type while it is still fruity at about 53.6°F (12°C) and the fuller version at 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).

    *** the best italian WINE ***

    The other type of Trentino red is made from one or two types of grape and is very characteristic of its grape and terroir. You will encounter wines made with the Cabernets (Cabernet Sauvignon and/or Cabernet Pranc) , Merlot, Marzemino, Pinot Nero, and Lagrein.

      These are all excellent but the best are the Riservas, which had at least two year's additional maturing. Drink at 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).

    There is also a full-bodied Spumante made with Pinot Nero. Drink at 50-53.6°F (10-12°C).

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  •    Trentino-Alto Adige, also known as Siidtirol, is bounded to the west by Lombardy, Veneto to the south, and Switzerland and Austria to the north. The principal towns of Trentino are Trente (Trento) Alto Adige (German speaking), and Bolzano.

     The area is bisected by the river Adige, the second longest river in Italy. In the north of the region the climate is continental while in the south it is less severe and warmer. Trentino-Alto Adige is somewhat of a transitional zone between Austria in the north and Italy in the south. The Swiss and Austrian influences can be see in the German names for both wines and places. Hence you will find both Santa Maddalena and Sankt Magdalener alongside each other and Caldaro Kalterersee, Alto Adige and Siidtirol. The grapes here also have two names and because they are generally exported to Austria, Switzerland, and Germany the German names are generally found on the labels.

      ***Italian WINE ***

    The Italian wines

    Due to the position at the foot of the mountains or even in the mountains, white wines are the general order of the day here. Because the local gastronomy runs towards fatty, the fresh acidity of these wines is seen as a benefit. The enormous temperature range between night and day during harvest imparts these wines with an aromatic nose which makes them worth considering. The reds too, mainly from more southerly Trentino, have a charm of their own. The fresh rosato, made in the north of the region, is much appreciated.



    The vineyards are sited in terraces on the mountain slopes, which makes their cultivation and management extremely difficult. Por this reason Alto Adige is therefore never a cheap wine, but certainly an exceptionally delicious one. Just as in Alsace, this region uses a generic name of Alto Adige for countless single grape varietal wines (sometimes supplemented with up to 15% of a different grape).

    The best-known wines are the Moscato Giallo (Goldenmuskateller or Goldmuskateller), Pinot Bianco (Weissburgunder), Pinot Grigio (Ruliinder), Chardonnay, Riesling Italico (Welsch Riesling), Riesling Renano (Rhine Riesling), Riesling x Sylvaner (Miiller-Thurgau), Sylvaner (Silvaner), Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer Aromatico (Gewürztraminer), Moscato Rosa (Rosenmuskateller), and Lagrein Rosato (Lagrein kretzer).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    This is the big brother of Lagrein Rosato. It is a deep ruby red with tinge of granite and pleasant nose of fresh grapes and velvet smooth taste. Riserva examples must be at least two years old. Drink at 50- 57.2°F (10- 14°C) , depending on age. Merlot Rosato (Merlot rose!Merlot kretzer), Merlot, Cabemet-Cabemet Pranc-Cabemet Sauvignon, and Cabemet-Lagrein are also well-known wines from this area.



    There are also excellent wines from either Cabemet and Lagrein or Cabemet and Merlot. If kept for an additional two years to age these wines may also bear the title Riserva on their label.

     ***Italian WINE ***


    There is also a sparkling white wine, Alto Adige Pinot Nero Spumante plus Pinot Nero Rosato (rose), Blauburgunder Kretzer, Blauburgunder rose, Malvasia (Malvasier), Schiava (Vematsch) , and Schiava Grigia (Grauvematsch).



    This is sparkling white with Pinot Bianco and/or Chardonnay, (sometimes with a maximum of 30% Pinot Nero and/or Pinot Grigio) . There are dry (extra-brut) and less dry (brut) versions. An ideal aperitif. Drink at 42.8-46.4°F (6- 8°C).{jcomments on}

  •   This area is situated on both sides of Lago d'Iseo, near Bergamo. To the east of Bergamo the soil is a mixture of clay and chalk, while in the north it consists of shingle, shale, and slate.

     The wines are made from ancient native grapes (Moscato di Scanzo, Merera, and Incrocio Terzi) and more modern varieties (Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Pranc). These wines are sold under the name of either Valcalepio Rosso (red) or Valcalepio Bianco (white) . Both types of wine are the realisation of a successful combination of tradition and modern methods. Valcalepio Rosso is chiefly made with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot to which the wine-maker adds various supplementary grapes.

    The colour is usually ruby red with tinges of granite red. The bouquet is pleasing, vinous, and aromatic. The taste is dry and typical of the grapes used (black currant, pepper, and cherry). Riserva wines must be aged for at least three years and contain at least 12.5% alcohol. Drink at 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).

    Valcalepio Bianco is usually made with Pinot Bianco, Chardonnay, and Pinot Grigio, in a variety of blends within these grapes. Each wine is unique but the best are intensely straw yellow and have a refined bouquet and a well-balanced and characteristic taste. Drink at 10-12°C (SO-S3.6°F).

    Finally there is also the old-fashioned style Oscato Passito, which is of outstanding quality. Remember though that this is a sweet red wine that is ruby to cherry red, with hints of granite red. The nose is typical of red Moscato in its intensity and characteristic sensuality.

      The taste is sweet, but wellbalanced thanks to its fine acidity. Bitter notes of almond can be detected in the finish. This wine must be aged for at least eighteen months and contain at least 17% alcohol. Drinking temperature is 8- 12°C (46.4-S3.6°F ) depending on season and personal preference.

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  •    These are generic whites, roses, and reds and varietal wines made from one or more types of grape. The variety indicated on the label must account for no less than 85% of the wine. The ordinary Valdadige Bianco is permitted a wide variety of grapes including Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Riesling Italico, Millier-Thurgau,

     Chardonnay, Bianchetta Trevigiana, Trebbiano Toscano, Nosiola, Vernaccia, and Garganega. No one example of Valdadige Bianco is representative. In general these are pale golden yellow, pleasingly fresh, fragrant, but not all dry for some examples may contain sugar residues. Drink at 46.4-53.6°F (8- 12°C) depending on the style.

    *** the best italian WINE ***

    There are also countless variations with the ordinary Valdadige Rosso. The choice of grape is from three varieties of Schiava, Lambrusco, Merlot, Pinot Nero, Lagrein, Teroldego, or Negrara. Depending on the style and type of wine Valdadige Rosso can vary from light red to the deepest dark red. The bouquet is reminiscent of fresh grapes and herbs and is always a delight. The wines are not all dry and you may find some slightly sweeter examples among them. Drink at 53.6- 60.8°F (12- 16°C) depending type.

    The Rosatos are made with the same choice of grapes as the Rosso and the colour varies widely. The nose and taste are fresh and fruity with a hint of old-fashioned pear drops that can be accompanied with a slight sweetness. This is a surprisingly delicious wine without pretensions. Drink at 50-53.6°F (10-12°C).

    *** the best italian WINE ***

    The other varietal wines, usually made from a single grape, are characteristic of the grape and terroir from which they originate. Generally these whites are a light golden yellow colour and fresh, juicy, and can be slightly sweet with Pinot Grigio examples. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for Pinot Bianco 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) in the case of Pinot Grigio and Chardonnay.

     The reds are made with one of three varieties of Schiava grapes (Gentile, Rossa, and Grigia), which may be supplemented with other non-aromatic grapes. This wine is ruby to granite red, slightly aromatic, freshly tart yet mellow and may also be slightly sweet. Drink at 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).

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  • Vaud Swiss Wine Region

    Vaud Wine SwissVaud is one of the most attractive vineyard landscapes in Switzerland. It combines the ruggedness of Valais with the more gentle landscape of Geneva and Neuchâtel. There are superb views of the mountains, lakes, marvellous wine domains, and castles. Vaud is also a paradise for both lovers of nature and gastronomy.

    There are two parts to the area: to the south it extends along the northern shore of Lake Geneva or Lac Léman and to the north along the southern part of Lac de Neuchâtel. These two areas are subdivided into six districts of Chablais (Aigle), Lavaux (between Montreux and Lausanne), and La Côte (between Lausanne and Nyon) by Lake Geneva and Côtes de l’Orbe, Bonvillars, and Vully around Lac de Neuchâtel. Most of the Swiss vineyards enjoy a microclimate influenced by the lakes.

  • Villány-Siklós Hungarian Wine

    Villanyi Siklos Hungarian CellarThis is the most southerly of Hungary’s wine areas and it consists of two parts. Both sections are sited at the foot of the Villányi mountain. Siklós is better known for its predominantly white wines and Villány for its fine reds. There are six top Hungarian wine producers in Villány. It is surely no coincidence that the six best wine-makers of Hungary originated from Villány. They are Attila and Támas Gere, Zoltán Polgár, Ede Tiffan, Joszef Bock, Vylyan. Villány wines are quite likely to develop into some of the best in Europe in the coming years.

  •   You must have seen the large two litre bottles of wine that are served by the glass in most Italian restaurants. These almost certainly originate from the Piave region.

    Tocai del Piave is used for the white wines and Merlot del Piave for the reds.

    Generally these wines are very drinkable but certainly not representative of the entire area. The region of Piave, which runs along both banks of the Piave river, also makes good wine. There are excellent Cabernet and Cabernet Sauvignons with just sufficient vegetal undertones and tannin to compete with a good French wine (though much cheaper). Merlot and Pinot Nero here are just a little smoother than elsewhere, even sometimes bordering on the sweet.

    The best wines are cask aged and are entitled to be called Riserva. Try a typical Italian wine, the Aboso del Piave. This is ruby to granite red with a seductive nose of wild violets and other pleasant woodland aromas. The taste is dry, robust, masculine, freshly acidic, sometimes high in tannin, but always true to character and juicy. Drink at 53.6-57.2°F (12- 14°C) to 60.8°F (16°C) for the Riserva.

    The choice with white wines is simpler. The golden yellow but unobtrusive Tocai Italiano is known to most. It goes well with a pizza. Provide it is sufficiently chilled and drunk in moderation it can do little harm. Almost the same is true of the Pinot Bianco and the hardonnay, although the latter is certainly no advertisement for such a world famous grape. Of much greater interest are the sultry and aromatic Pinots Grigio del Piave or elegant, characteristic and exceptionally pleasant Erduzzo del Piave. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C), but for the Verduzzo and Pinot Grigio.

    Efosco dal Pedonculo Rosso is a pleasing and authentic wine. The unusual grape is known as Mondeuse in the French Savoie. Here it produces a wine that is intensely red, slightly tannic with a bitter finish but one that is rounded and filled with flavour. Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

    Other wines from Veneto include Colli Berici DOC, Colli Euganei DOC, Montello/ Colli Asolani DOC, Breganze DOC, Bagnoli di Sopra/Bagnoli DOC, Lison-Pramaggiore DOC, and Lessini Durello DOC.



    Wine from Veneto bears the denomination of Garda Orientale DOC, that from Lombardy just carries Garda DOC. The wine must be made from not less than 85% ofthe grapes indicated on the label. These are the well-known Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Chardonnay, Riesling Italico, Riesling Renano, and Sauvignon Blanc. These are all excellent wines. Drinking temperature is 46.4-50°F (8-10°C)for Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Bianco, and Rieslings and 50- 53.6°F (10-12°C) for Chardonnay and Pinot Grigio wines. Much more interesting to discover though are the Garganega, Trebbianello, and Cortese white wines.

    All three can be either dry or medium dry and they are fairly aromatic and filled with flavour. Drink at 50- 53.6°F (10-12°C). With the red wines there are the essential Cabernets, Merlots, and Pinots Nero wines, which are just as good and as bad as elsewhere in the world. You may also encounter the authentic Marzemino and Corvina wines.

     These are both fresh, delightful, and fragrant. Drink at 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C). Pinally there are also white Prizzante wines that are dry or medium dry and always fruity. Drinking temperature is 42.8-46.4°F (6-8°C).

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  • Posavje Slovenian Wine

    Slovenian winePosavje(Posavski Vinorodni Region) means the valley of the Sava, which is the river that together with its tributaries, the Sotla, Savinja, and Krka provides the necessary moisture to this region. Posavje is situated south of Podravje, against the Croatian border. The area has a climate that is principally central European and continental but with moderating Mediterranean influences from the south, especially in Bela Krajina. Every type of this Slovenian wine is produced here from fresh to sweet, from light to moderately full-bodied, and white, rosé, and red, still or sparkling. Posavje is renowned for its excellent late harvest sweet Slovenian wines such as (Pozna Trgatev) and for Eiswein (Ledeno Vino), and others produced from grapes carefully selected such as Izbor, Jagodni Izbor, and Suhi Jagodni Izbor.

  • Quebec

    Quebec is the French-speaking province of Canada. The weather circumstances are everything but ideal for cultivating vines and making wine.

     Temperatures can drop to minus 40°F/C or even lower in winter which is fatal for vines. A handful of enthusiasts tried a surprising way to protect the vines against the cold of winter. The vines are kept pruned low and before the first frosts they are covered with a layer of earth which is then removed in spring. Apart from this interesting cultivation technique and the hard working nature of the local growers, there is little else positive to say about this wine region. The wines that we tasted were extremely dubious and their prices far too high.



    Ontario is the wine region in Canada with the longest continuous activity. The vineyards are in three districts: the Niagara Peninsula, Lake Erie North Shore, and Pelee Island. These three districts are all close to the Great Lakes. The epicentre of the wine industry is the town of Niagara-on-Lake, where the present-day generation of wine growers and makers have their origins in Germany, France, Italy, and even The Netherlands. Although Ontario shares the same latitude as the Cotes du Rhone, its climate is much harsher. The summers are hot and winters extremely cold. Wine-growing is only possible close to the most southerly of the five Great Lakes, Lake Erie. The soil here consists of a mixture of clay, gravel, and loam which is rich in minerals and trace elements. The underlying geology consists of hard rock which gives additional complexity to the wines.

    Various hybrid grape varieties are grown here such as Seyval Blanc and Vidal for white wines and Maréchal Foch and Baco Noir for reds. Although Seyval, Vidal, and Baco Noir deliver good to excellent results the Ontario growers are increasingly choosing to plant more vinifera varieties such as Pinot Auxerrois, Chardonnay, Gewiirztraminer, Pinot Blanc, and Riesling on the one hand and Pinot Noir, Gamay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot on the other.


    British Columbia

    Although wine has been made here for some considerable time which left much to be desired, the past decade has seen this region striving for the best quality. The old hybrid or even worse native America Vilis labrusca vines have increasingly been replaced with Vitis vinifera varieties. Wine is made in two districts: the western Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island, and the eastern Okanagan and Similkameen valleys.

    The first two areas and the Similkameen Valley are recent additions that are busily in the process of development. The historical heart of British Columbia lies in the Okanagan Valley where the weather conditions are more suited to growing grapes and making wines. The summers are hot and dry, with little rainfall.

    The soil consists of rock, fine sand, clay, and alluvial deposits in the south. The more northerly vineyards that are cooler and more humid are mainly planted with French and German grape varieties of Auxerrois, Bacchus, Chardonnay, Erenfelser, Gewiirztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, and Riesling, while the more southerly ones have the traditional red varieties of Pinot Noir and Merlot.

    British Columbia has three types of winery.

    The Majors are the large wine industries which get their grapes from far and wide, the Estates use only those grown in British Columbia, of which at least 50% is from their own vineyards.

     They are required to conduct all viticultural and wine-making activities within their own winery. The Farms are mainly smaller in scale and must meet the same requirements as the Estates except that 75% of the grapes must come from their own vineyards.

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    Cabernet Franc grapes are mainly grown in northeast Victoria and blended with grapes such as Merlot. This rather rare red wine is unfortunately somewhat underestimated in Australia. Drinking temperature is 57.2- 60.8°F (14-16°C).


    Merlot is also little used on its own and mainly vinified or blended with the Cabernets or even with Shiraz. The combination of 65% Merlot and 35% Cabernet Pranc that is then cask aged for twelve months is quite common in Australia. This produces a fruity wine with fresh acidity and mellow taste.

    Drinking temperature is 57.2- 60.8°F (14-16°C).


    This Burgundian grape will be encountered here less widely than in the Bordeaux or Rhone types. Despite this, Australian Pinot N oir is proof of the skill of the successful Australian wine-makers. Anybody can make wine from the idiosyncratic Pinot Noir but to make good wine requires considerable know-how and plenty of passion. Various styles of Pinot Noir are to be found in Australia, from light, fruity and generous, to full-bodied, sultry, with animal undertones and sometimes a little on the heavy side.

    The best of them are somewhere in between these two extremes and simultaneously elegant and fullbodied with a seductive nose containing plum and cherry with a rich, almost caressing taste.

    Drinking temperature is 57.2- 60.8°F (14-16°C).


    The Australians use the original name for this grape and not its bastardisation into French as Syrah. The Shiraz grape originally came from the Shiraz valley in Iran and was brought to Europe by the Crusaders. Australian Shiraz is a sensual tour-de-force with plenty of colour, tannin, and acidity but also a wonderful bouquet containing overripe dark fruit such as plum, and spices (e.g. white pepper). Mature Shiraz develops animal undertones with a nose of leather and Russian fur, plus sometimes the smell of freshly-roasted Mocca coffee.

    Drinking temperature is 60.8- 62.6°F (16- 17°C).


    This is very common blend that produces a wine of intense colour with plenty of fruit and a mellow and rounded but fulsome taste. The bouquet mainly evokes thoughts of cherry and blackcurrant with a hint of pepper.

    Drinking temperature is 60.8- 62.6°F (16- 17°C).


    This is an interesting hybrid resulting from crossing the Portuguese Touriga and extremely productive Sultana, which is better known in its dried form. This fairly recent Australian development is causing a major revolution. People who are not accustomed to drinking wine fall for the fruity charm of the Tarrango, which can be served at almost any time if chilled.

     Tarrango wines have been deliberately inserted into international blind wine-tastings to cause confusion because it so closely resembles a French Beaujolais.

    Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

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  • Merlot

    Somewhat similar to a Cabernet Sauvignon but much softer and more rounded. The Merlot is approachable much sooner than the Cabernet Sauvignon.

    It is real seducer with nose of black cherry, plum, toffee, chocolate, orange, mint, cedarwood, green tea, and violets. The structure is full-bodied and rich while the taste is velvet smooth. Drinking temperature is 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).

    Pinot Noir

    The Pinot Noir is able to combine complexity and elegance like no other grape. It requires some courage to plant Pinot Noir in California bur perhaps not in Los Carneros.

    The desired results will not be achieved every year but when the weather permits, the results are overwhelming. Californian Pinot Noir are quick seducer that are fresh and fruity with a hint of herbs and mushrooms, but also a sensual nose containing coffee and cedarwood. The texture is full-bodied, elegant, complex, and velvet smooth. Drinking temperature is 57.2-60.8°F (14-16°C).


    This is the Californian grape. It porbably originated from the Italian Primitivo and certainly not from the Hungarian Zirfandli.

    Zinfande remains recongnisable for the suggestions of vanilla ice cream with strawberries or raspberries in its bouquet, whether made as white, rosé, or red wine. The wine is fairly full-bodied, rich and tannic, with a peppery undertone. The whole of America loves its ‘Zin’ and Europe is also now starting to enjoy it too. Drinking temperature is 57.2 – 60.8°F (14-16°C).

    Petite Syrah/Syrah

    These are two different grape varieties which both originate from the French Rhône. Both produce substantial and firm wines that are deeply coloured and very aromatic with hints of blueberry, raspberry, fruit jam, pepper, and herbs. Drinking temperature is 60.8-62.6°F (12-14°C).


    Gamay/Gamay Beaujolais

    These are very fruity wines that are very fresh and mellow with little acidity or tannin. They are a aperfect introduction for a newcomer to wine drinking, with chicken or turkey for instance. Drinking temperature is 52.6-57.2°F (12-14°C).

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