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  • Pauillac/ST Julien French Wine


    The vineyards of Pauillac lie to the west of the town, parallel with the Gironde. The northern vineyards are slightly higher on more noticeable slopes than those of the south. Both areas have infertile soil that is very stony. In the south the gravel stones are generally larger than in the north, forming pebbles. The entire area is bedded in strata than ensure good drainage.The French wine of Pauillac is strongly influenced by its terroir. It is rich in colour (purple or granite red) strong, powerful, with substantial backbone and tannin, but also juicy, very refined, and elegant. It is worth leaving for at least five years but far better ten before opening.

    Some of the characteristic aromas are blackcurrant, cherry, plum, strawberry, raspberry, violet, rose, iris, cedarwood (of cigar boxes), vanilla, menthol, spices, cocoa, coffee, liquorice, leather, and toast. This robust French wine with a great deal of finesse and elegance is just as delicious with a simple but wonderful roast leg of lamb, served with mushrooms as it is with a tournedos Rossini (with real goose liver and truffle).

  • Peloponnese Wine Area

    Peloponnese Greek Wine

    Peloponnese wine mapFrom the mainland of Attika the Peloponnese are reached across the Straights of Corinth (Korinthiakos Kolpos) and the Corinth Canal. The Peloponnese are a predominantly agricultural region of Greece, famous for their sultanas and Corinthian grapes that are better known as currants. The Peloponnese is a fairly hilly region, dominated by Mount Taygete (2,407 metres/7,896 feet). Most of the vineyards are in the north of the ‘island’, including the guaranteed origin wines of Patras, Mantineia, and Nemea. In addition to these three wines, the Peloponnese also produce a large quantity of reasonable to good Greek wine and topikos oinos. The increasingly common modern wines made with the well-known French grapes of Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Grenache Rouge, and Carignan etc. are surprising but not exactly exciting. These grapes do produce outstanding results though when combined with Greek varieties such as Mavrodaphne or Agiorgitiko.

  • Penedés Spanish Wine

    The Spanish wines of Penedés

    Jean Leon Spanish WineThe whites Spanish wine from Penedés vary widely. Most are a blend of local varieties and ‘foreign’ varieties. The basic grapes for Cava (Parellada, Macabeo and Xarel-lo) are frequently mixed with Chardonnay or Sauvignon Blanc, which leads to countless different types and varying tastes.

    Generally the ordinary Penedés whites are dry, fresh, and fruity wines which are mainly for drinking when young. Drinking temperature for this Spanish wine is 46.4- 50.0°F (8-10°C).

  • Penedès Spanish Wine region and climate

    Position, soil, and climate for Penedès wines

    Jean Leon Cabernet Penedes Spanish WinePenedès is situated to the south of Barcelona, divided between the provinces of Barcelona and Tarragona. While the centre for Cava production and trade is San Sadumi d’Anoia, the main centre for still wines is Vilafranca del Penedès. The vineyards are sited between the coastal strip of the Mediterranean and the central plateau, the Meseta. In practice Penedes is subdivided into three large sub-regions. The vineyards of Baix Penedes lie along the coast at a height of 820 feet (250 metres). This is the hottest area and the wines produced here are for daily consumption.

  • Pessac-Leognan and Pétrus Bordeaux Wines

    Pessac-Leognan (A.O.C.) Bordeaux Wine

    Pessac Leognan Bordeaux WineThis is Bordeaux’s newest AOC. Because the vineyards are located within Graves, wines produced here can also be labelled with any of the region’s AOCs. Seeing their region threatened by urbanization, Pessac Leognan’s pro­ducers worked with great perseverance to obtain a specific AOC. A number of factors made this a logical step. In this part of Graves, with remarkable consistency, the soil is particularly gravelly and typical of the region. The wines stand out by their quality—confirmed by fifteen editions of the Feret guide and their soaring prices. Historically, as one of the first Bordeaux vineyards, Pessac-Leognan also deserved recognition.

  • Piemonte Wine

    Piemonte Wine LabelPiemonte (Piedmont) ITALY REGION

    The name describes the position of the area: “at the foot of the mountains”, which is the Alps and bounds Italy with France and Switzerland. Countless rivers flow from these mountains to create beautiful valleys in the lower area. The city of Piedmont is Turin (Torino), famous for its large industry. The rest of the area is traditional agricultural. Piemont has great tradition, which has had many successful generations of farmers. The local food is known for its strong herbs and spices. The Italian red wine is very powerful, especially those made with the Nebbiolo grape. Italian wine has been made in Piedmont for a long time, referenced both in Greek and Roman literature. Today Piedmont, with Tuscany, is a temple to the art of Italian wine making.



    The sparkling Asti Spumante is made by a natural second fermentation or in tanks. The colour is clear, ranges from yellow to golden and the nose is reminiscent of Muscat grapes which form the basis of this Italian wine. The taste is fruity, sweet and is a good balance between acidity and sweetness. Women prefer this Italian wine chilled. The drinking temperature should be 6- 8°C (42.8-46.4°F). The bubbles of Moscato d’ Asti, made with Muscat (or Moscato) grapes, is clear straw yellow with an intense bouquet of Muscat grapes. It has an aromatic and sweet taste, and acidity leaves an impression on the palate. A genuine Moscato d' Asti Italian wine is not cheap. The drinking temperature should be 8-10°C (46.4-50°F). 

    Piemonte Map Wine


    This Italian red wine made with Nebbiolo, the name from the Bararesco district of the providence of Cuneo. It’s an exceptional Italian wine and deep red colouring. It’s very aromatic and has a rich flavor. The Italian wine when young can be harsh, but is fine after a few years lying down. Riserva Italian wine needs four years to age. The drinking temperature of Italian wine when young should be 13- 15°C (55.4- 59°F) but 16- 17°C (60.5-62.6°F ) when fully mature.



    Probably is the best known Italian wine from Piedmont. Barolo is also made with Nebbiolo and originates from Cuneo. This top Italian wine is a deep and dark granite red and has a aromatic bouquet, it is alcoholic at a minimum of 13%.


    Barolo, when young has a harshness of its tannin when drinking; leave it for at least five years. You can’t sell ordinary Barolo until at least three years. Riserva Italian wine must be at least five years old. The drinking temperature should be 16-18°C (60.8-64.4°F).

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  • Pomerol and Poujeaux Bordeaux Wines

    Pomerol (A.O.C.) Bordeaux Wine

    Chateau la Grave a Pomerol Boredeaux WineIn the twelfth century, the powerful Hospitallers of Saint John of Jerusalem established their first Libournais Commanderie in the Pomerol commune. Here they built a manor, a hospital for pilgrims on their way to Saint James of Compostela, and a church.

    Though the vineyard was virtually abandoned and devastated during the Hundred Years’ War and the English occupation, it was re-established during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The vineyard again suffered during the Wars of Religion. From 1900, though, Pomerol’s wine-growers created a union to defend their appellation. One of their main objectives was to prevent winegrowers in neighboring communes from abusing the Pomerol name by stamping it on their casks.

     Pomerol, wine, Poujeaux, Saint, Chateau, Bordeaux

  • Pomerol French wine

    This is a very big name for such a small french winegrowing area of only 800 hectares. Wine-growing here takes place on a small area with a ferruginous soil. The soil varies greatly: it is sandy in the vicinity of Libourne, gravel-bearing sand and clay to the west, Pomerol French winesgravel-bearing clay in the centre, and ravelbearing sand to the north. Despite this variety of soils the French wines of Pomerol are clearly all offspring of the same family.

    The French wine Pomerol is at the same time full, powerful, and supple, and very fruity with blackberry, cherry, raspberry, and plum dominant, sometimes tending towards preserved or dried fruit in the best years. Other recognisable aromas in top Pomerols include violet, iris, vanilla, spices, toast, game, leather, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, liquorice, and sometimes also cinnamon (Petrus), and truffle.

  • Pommard - Red French Wine


    Without doubt the best-known Burgundy in the world. The name resonates just like the wine's taste - of a thunderclap on a hot autumn evening.

     The colour is an exciting red and the bouq uet (black cherry, herbs, leather) and taste are both strong. This is a full, fatty wine that is both powerful and harmonious. A more classic traditional Burgundy is not to be found.


    This   red French wine   is strangely   better   known with painters, sculptors, and writers than gastronomes. Perhaps this is because of its almost artistic, tender, and feminine qualities. Volnay is certainly not a macho wine. It has a very pure and clear red colour and the nose suggests violets and blackcurrant or sloes when young, which later develop into a complex bouquet with an assortment of fruits, flowers, herbs, and toadstools. It is a rounded, velvety wine that above all is sensual.

    The better wines originate from the Premier Cru climats. This French wine merits serving with fine food.



    It is impossible to explain why Monthelie has not yet been truly discovered. Exceptionally pleasant white and red French wine is made here which is certainly not inferior to neighbouring Volnay. It is a wine then for the astute who want quality at a lower price. The red wines are better than the whites which are classic Burgundian Chardonnay with lots of butter (sometimes too much) and wood in the nose with a mild but full taste. The best Monthelie whites also contain hints of toast, white flowers, and honey with the occasional suggestion of Virginian tobacco.

    The red Monthelie French wine is a seductive clear, and cheerful red colour. Its nose is fruity when young (blackberry, bilberry, blackcurrant) with occasional floral notes   (violets). When more mature this changes to the classic fungal aromas while the fruitiness reminds of home-made jam. It is a rich, lithe, generous, and friendly French wine which is at its best after several years maturing in the bottle.



    The same hill has two very different sides to it. Red  French wine is made from one side and white wine from the other. White Auxey-Duresses is pale yellow, very aromatic (fruity and minerals) with the occasional suggestion of exotic fruit such as mango.

     The taste is warm, open, and generous. Red Auxey-Duresses steels the show. Do not drink it too young when it is still rather rough. The colour often tends towards granite red and the aromas evoke ripe fruit. It is a warm, full wine with a considerable structure.

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  • Port Fortified Wine

    Port fortified wine is made in various styles in the Douro Vallery, a rugged, yet beautiful and stunning location in northern Portugal. The area was first dermacated in 1756. A rich, fortified wine, port is made by stopping the fermentation before it is complete, in order to arrest or keep some residual sugar in the wine. In most cases, maturation takes place in Villa Nova de Gaia, close to the coolness of the mouth of the River Douro and opposite the city of Oporto.

    Port Fortified Wine The steep slopes alongside the River Douro and its tributaries are terraced to accommodate the vines. Labour therefore is still pretty intensive and most of the picking is done by hand. Over forty different grape varieties are grown here, but only five have been identified as ideal for the production of port: Touriga Nacional, Touriga Francesa, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz, and Tini Cão. Once the ripe grapes are picked, fermentation will follow in stainless steel tanks, although some ‘quintas’ (vineyards) still tread grapes in ‘lagares’, open-top granite tanks. Ordinary port will often have a long maturation in casks, known as pipes, or in arge wooden vats, whille vintage port will develop for most of its life in bottle.


    Styles of Port Fortified wine

    Althoug port is seen as an after-dinner drink or a classic accompaniment to cheese, particuarly Stilton, its breadth of styles means that it cane be suitable with a range of food. A sweet tawny port for instance, works beautifully with a rich pâté.

    WHITE PORT FORTIFIED WINE: made from white grapes. Dry or sweet.

    RUBY FORTIFIED WINE: youthful, spicy, fruity, and with a deep ruby colour.

    VINTAGE CHARACTER FORTIFIED WINE: deeply coloured, full-bodied port around four years of age (blended).

    TAWNY FORTIFIED WINE: aged in wood , tawny coloured, smoth, and with flavours of dried fruits. A blend of grapes from several harvests, an indication of age (10, 20, 30 of 40 years old) will be shown on the label og the best ports.

    COLHEITA FORTIFIED WINE: a single harvest Tawny. At least seven years old, having rich, smooth, comlex ‘Tawny’ characteristics.

    LATE BOTTLED VINTAGE FORTIFIED WINE: port from a good year (not necessarily a ‘declared’ vintage). Matured in wood for five or six years. Accessible, more complex than ruby or vintage character.

    SINGLE QUITA FORTIFIED WINE: single harvest, from an individual vineyard. Maturing in bttle to reveal black fruits and spie on the palate. Throws sediment (crust), so needs decanting.VINTAGE FORTIFIED WINE: single exceptional harvest, which may be declared. Aged for two to three years in wood, then slowly in bottle, for up to three decades. complex, blackberry-like flavours, spicy and powerful in youth. needs decanting.


    ► Fortified Wine  ► Sherry Fortified Wine ► Port Fortified Wine   ► Madeira Fortified Wine {jcomments on}

  • Portugal Wine

      Portugal's climate is generally moderate without extremes of temperature. The winters are mild and the summers are warm but definitely not too hot.

     The north of the country is warmed by the gulf stream of the North Atlantic and the ocean ensures ample moisture.The centre of the country is hotter and drier, especially in summer. The winters there are mild and short. The south has the hottest and driest weather with a moderate Mediterranean climate. Countless wines of distinction originate from this idyllic land, which have been popular with European consumers for a long time. There are other wines that are waiting to be discovered that are of no less quality.

    We will deal with the various wine areas of Portugal from north to south and then continue onwards to Madeira and the Azores. The enormous technical backwardness of the Portuguese wine industry has been almost totally done away with in recent decades.

    There are small places still to be found where wine is still made as it was 100 years ago but that is in stark contract with the high-tech adegas or independent quintas where everything is computer­ controlled . The best quintas (independent wine companies) choose a perfect middle road with respect for tradition with the hygienic methodology and certainty of the latest technology.

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  • Portugal Wines



    Although the Douro region is one of the most Portuguese of the wine territories, the famous port or port wine as it was once called from the Douro valley is almost entirely due to the inventiveness of the English.


    Port or porto derives its name from the harbour town of Porto, the second city of Portugal. Porto is situated close to Vila Nova de Gaia where most port is stored, bottled, and traded.

    Ideal circumstances

    The valley of the Alto-Douro is probably the most picturesque wine area anywhere in the world. The vineyards start about 80 km (50 miles) to the east of Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia and they are protected by the 1,400 metre high Marao mountain against the worst influences of a maritime climate.

    The soil is chiefly comprised of shale and folds of crumbled basalt which force the vines to send down long roots in search of nutrients and water. The summers are extremely warm and dry with bitingly cold and very wet winters. To prevent erosion and make it easier to tend the vines, the area is widely terraced. Despite this everything is hard manual work. That these working conditions are difficult is underscored by the fact that only 40,000 hectares of the permitted 250,000 hectares are actually planted with vines.

    The traditional varieties of grape for making white port are Arinto, Boal Cachudo, Cercial, Malvasia Fina, Samarrinho, and Verdelho. Red port is made from a choice that includes Bastardo, Malvasia, Tinto Mourisco, Touriga Francesa, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional, Periquita, and Tinta Barroca. This wide variety helps in part explain the wide differences between different ports.

    The same exciting ritual takes place in about mid September of each year. Long lines of grape-pickers

    enter the quintas or vineyards to pick the ripe grapes, terrace by terrace. After picking, the grapes are collected in huge baskets to be brought to the press some tens of kilometres away. Today most port-making companies use pneumatic presses but some of the smaller companies still utilise the traditional huge but low granite tubs or lagares, in which the family, pickers, and friends press the grapes with their bare feet or with special shoes. This scene out of folklore is often done to music and attracts scores of tourists.

    During vinification, which nowadays happens in stainless steel tanks, wine alcohol is added during fermentation at the rate of 10 litres per 45 litres of fermenting must. The new port is then transferred to wooden casks and left to rest for several months.

    After this the casks are transferred to Vila Nova de Gaia, where they are stored to mature in enormous cellars or lodges (armazens). More recently some port is now also left in the Douro valley to mature.

     The maturing process takes a minimum of two years. During the maturing in the huge 550 litre casks known as pipas the wine changes colour from purple/red to tan and the immature wine acquires specific character and bouquet.

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  • Portuguese Porto Branco


    Porto BrancoPort is one of the drinks that is most imitated but nowhere else has succeeded in making such wine of the same quality. Port is sun in a bottle but it is also inseparable from its early origins, the soil of shale and basalt. These factors ensure the difference between true port an its imitators.



    For centuries, port was only a red wine but since 1935 white port has also been made in the same manner as red port. The only difference is the use of white grape varieties such as Malvasia. White port can be sweet, dry, or very dry.

  • Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux

    Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux French Wine

    premieres Cotes de BordeauxThe wine-growing area on the right bank of the Garonne is about 60 km (37 miles) long and runs from the suburbs of Bordeaux to the border with the Cotes de Bordeaux St-Macaire. The landscape is hilly and there are magnificent views across the river and the vineyards of Graves. The underlying beds are varied but chiefly chalk and gravel on the hills and alluvial deposits closer to the Garonne.

    Production is mainly of red French wines but some smooth to liquorous white wines are made in the southeastern tip close to Cadillac,

  • Premieres Cotes De Bordeaux and Priaaeur Wines

    Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux (A.O.C.)

    Premieres Cotes de BordeauxThe Premières Côtes de Bordeaux region stretches from Bassens to Saint-Maixant along the entire length of the Garonne, following the river's twists and turns. This hilly region makes for pleasant walking, offering many viewpoints. Visitors will also come across a number of small chateaux, monuments, and historic sites, such as the fortified towns of Rions and Cadillac. Many famous people were born, lived or spent holidays in this area, including Rosa Bonheur, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Anatole France, François Mauriac, and Gustave Eiffel.

  • Priorat Spanish Wine Region

    Priorat/Priorato Spanish Wine

    Red wine Priorato Spanish winePriorat, or Priorato as it is called in Catalan, is one of the oldest wine-growing areas of Cataluña. The landscape of Priorat is reflected in the wine, with the strength of the mountains, the warmth of the sun, the gentle embrace of the valleys, the blissful scents which are spread by the mountain winds, the ruggedness of the granite beneath the feet of the vines, and the sparkle of mica in the sun. Few wines in the world reveal so much of themselves as the Spanish wines of Priorat. A Carthusian monastery (priorat) was built on the site where about 1,000 years ago a shepherd saw an angel climbing to heaven on a hidden staircase. Only ruins now remain of the monastery but the village of Scala Dei (staircase to God) that was built around the monastery now flourishes as a wine centre. J6WAGX3X62Z8

  • Priorat Wine - Climate and Region

    Priorat climate and region

    Wine Cataluna Priorat The climate of Priorat is also different from elsewhere. The heat of a continental climate is moderated by the south-easterly mistral, while the cold and usually wet northerly winds are able to penetrate the valley. The winters are generally fairly cold but not extreme, while the summers are long, hot, and dry.

    The most widely used variety of grape in Priorat is the Garnacha (both Tinta and Peluda), often supplemented with Mazuelo (Cariñena). Garnacha Blanca, Macabeo, and a small amount of Pedro Ximénez are used for the rarer white Spanish wines and liqueur wines. J6WAGX3X62Z8

  • Puglia Italian Wines

    Puglia Wine and Region

    Puglia mapPuglia is one of the largest wine producing regions of Italy. It is found in the extreme south east of Italy, forming the ‘heel’ to the boot shape of Italy. The coastline of Puglia with both the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas is extensive. To the west Puglia borders Campania and Basilicata and to the north with Molise. Puglia’s landscape is entirely different to the bordering regions. There are no mountains, though a couple of high plateau. The climate is distinctly Mediterranean, hence hot and dry. Fortunately wine-growing and making has improved enormously in recent years throughout Puglia and work is well under way to further improve both the quality and individual identity of the local wines.

  • Puglia Italian Wines


    Primitivo di Manduria wineFour types of heavy and sultry red Italian wines are made here from Primitivo grapes that probably arrived from ancient Greece. The ordinary Primitivo has low residual sugars and 14% alcohol. The Dolce Naturale is clearly sweeter and contains at least 16% alcohol. Drinking temperature is 10-16°C (50-60.8°F) for the Secco Italian wine and ordinary Primitivo but 6-12°C (42.8-53.6°F) for the Dolce and Liquoroso Dolce Italian wine.

  • Puisseguin Saint-Emilion, Puygueraud and Rame Bordeaux Wines

    Puisseguin-Saint-Émilion (A.O.C.) Bordeaux Wine

    Puisseguin Saint Emilion Bordeaux WinePerched on a natural hill, the Puisseguin commune owes its name to the word puy, meaning mount, and Séguin, one of Charlemagne’s lieutenants who had a chateau built on this strategic site. It was during the eighteenth century that Puisseguin’s economy began to rely largely on wine-growing and winemaking. Pierre Combret, a pioneer in wine-growing agronomy, intro-duced the use of grape varieties known as “noble” and made the most of this terroirs qualities. Many others followed suit. The commune’s future was thus assured and Puisseguin earned its place in Bordeaux wine-growing history.

    Situated at an altitude of 89 meters, Puisseguin’s vineyards enjoy a mainly south- south-east exposure and a dry, bright, almost Mediterranean microclimate—proved by the presence of many holm oaks. Its hilly terrain of clay-limestone soil on a rocky subsoil provides good drainage and allows the vines to develop deep roots which draw out elements essential to the plants’ development. Nearly eighty properties make up this appellation*, including Chateaux Teillac, Guibeau-la-Fourvieille, Roc de Bernon, and Grand-Rigaud.