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  • Spain Wine



    The total area of Spanish vineyards is in the region of 1.2 milion hectares. That is enormous and about 300,000 hectates larger than either the France or Italian wine-growing areas.

    Yet less wine is produced than in either of the other two countries, at approximately 35,5 milion hectolitres, a vast 20 milion hectolitres less than France or Italy.

    The difference in production volumes in partly accounted for by the large proportion of Denominación de Origen wine. Spain produces relatively smaller volumes of vino de la tierra (country wine or vin de pays) than France or Italy.

    The majority of Spanich wines originates from Catalonia, Valencia, and La Mancha. Regions such as La Rioja, Aragon, Levante, and Andalucia produce quality wine in much lower volume.

     The lower yield can also be explained by the extremly hot and arid climate of southern Spain. The vines have to be kept low because of the extremes of weather so that the yield is little more than a few bunches per vine.

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  • Sparkling wines

    South Africa makes a number of very good sparkling wines. The best are made by the methode traditionnelle which is known here as methode cap classique.

    Only a few of these wines, such as the Pongnicz, could compete with top quality Champagnes The other sparkling wines that are not made by the traditional method are also known as sparkling wine, and they can also be very tasty. Drinking temperature is 42.5-46.4°F (6-8°C).

    Fortified wines

    The sweet South African wines such as Muscadel and Hanenpoot (Muscat of Alexandria) can be readily recommended.

    The heavy and sultry wines that used to be have become somewhat fresher and more interesting.

     The port and sherry type wines of South Africa can withstand judgement alongside the top European originals. They miss some of the finer freshness of the true ports and sherries but compensate for this with their sunny character.

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  • Special vinification from Andalucia

    Special vinification

    Sherry SpainThe grape harvest begins each year around 10 September. The grapes are picked by hand because the vines are pruned low to the ground and also because the grapes need careful handling in view of the extreme heat. The pickers therefore use small plastic crates that can each hold 39.683205 pound (18 kg) to bring the grapes undamaged to the press. Some bodegas still use the traditional arroba baskets that hold only 24.250847 pound (11.5 kg). Pedro Ximenez and Muscatel grapes are use for the sweet Spanish wines.

  • St-Emilion French Wines

    The vineyards of St-Emilion surround the picturesque village of that name. The ancient Romans were certain of the quality of the local vineyards, as witnessed by the famous poet and consul Ausonius. The vineyards surrounding St-Emilion are situated on a plateau of calciferous soil and on hills of chalk-bearing loam or clay soils. West of St-Emilion the underlying ground is gravel. This is the area of the great French wines. Most St-Emilion wines though originate from sandy-sediments and ferruginous sandstone beds which reach to the Dordogne.

  • St-Pourçain French Wine

    St-Pourcain French wineVins d'Auvergne

    Finally in France we make a short visit to the Auvergne. We leave the upper reaches of the Loire and drop down towards its tributary, the Allier. There are two French wines growing areas here: St-Pourçain and the Côtes d' Auvergne.

    Although the neighbouring wine districts of Côtes de Porez and Côtes du Roannais are officially part of the Upper Loire, they have been dealt with under the section on Beaujolais, which they more nearly resemble.

  • Ste-Foy-Bordeaux French Wines

    Ste-Foy-Bordeaux Wine

    This French wine area is situated to the south of Bergerac. The small town of Ste-Foy appears to consist oftwo parts. Port-Ste-Foy is on the right bank of the Dordogne, hence in the Bergeracois, while Ste-Foyla-Grande is in the Bordelais on the left bank. The soil of Ste-Foy varies from clay bearing alluvial deposits for the reds to chalk bearing strata on which the whites are grown. The underlying strata are gravel, sand, and calciferous clay. This explains the difference in types and taste of the Ste-Foy wines. A remarkable and positive fact regarding this French wine-growing district is their quality charter that is signed by the communal winegrowers.

    Red Wine BordeauxThe red French wine is the most widely produced, using Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc. Most of these are fairly dark, very fruity, with a bouquet of red fruit and vanilla, which merge into more complex aromas such as leather, fungus, coffee, and spices, when mature. Drinking temperature for Ste-Foy-Bordeaux French wine: 16°C (60 .8°F).

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  • Suisse Romande Region

    SUISSE Romande REGION AND Switzerland Wine

    Vineyards Suisse Romande RegionThe Francophone wine regions are situated in the south-east of the country, and this is where most of the country’s wines are grown and made. Although Berne, Fribourg, Neuchatel, and Vaud play a role that certainly is not to be underestimated, it is principally Valais that is responsible for the best quality and greatest volume. Suisse Romande is virtually synonymous with white Swiss wine from the Chasselas grape which fails to achieve such quality and diversity of taste and styles anywhere else in the world.

  • Sweet and dry Cagliari Wine


    Sardinian wineThis is actually a collection of wines made from Malvasia grapes. They are all produced in the area around Cagliari. The dry Malvasia Secco and sweet Malvasia Dolce Naturale are full-bodied and alcoholic wines (minimum alcohol 14%).

    They are aromatic and refined with some bitter undertones including a suggestion of burnt almond. Drink this Italian wine at 10-12°C (50-53.6°F) for the Secco and 8-10°C (46.4-50°F) for the Dolce Italian wine.

  • Swiss Ticino Wine Region

    Ticino, Mesolcina, and Poschiavo Swiss Wine Regions

    Ticino Wine Swiss RegionIt is not correct to speak of just Ticino as part of Italian speaking Switzerland for parts of Grisons Mesolcina and Poschiavo are also Italian speaking. Grisonso is therefore also included here.


    Mesolcina and Poschiavo SWISS WINE REGIONS

    These two southern areas of Grisons, Mesolcina (also known as Misox) and Poschiavo, solely produce red wine from Merlot and several hybrid blue grape Wine regions.

  • Swiss Wine

    SWItzerland WINE

    Swiss Wine LabelSwitzerland is unbelievably beautiful with breathtaking mountains, deep valleys, lakes, picturesque towns and villages, and so much besides. However if anyone starts to discuss Swiss wine then conversation becomes animated. The opponents consider Swiss wines to be ridiculously expensive and of very modest quality. They declare that no good wine can be made from such poor grapes as Chasselas. The Swiss wine enthusiast on the other hand maintains that the authenticity of the Swiss terroir and very successful combination of soil, siting, and grape makes Swiss wine special. Furthermore, they add the Swiss do not just make white wines and their prices are a reflection of the difficult conditions under which the grapes are cultivated. Those who taste the wines objectively will find them exciting and of great class.

  • Syrah Red Grapes

      The Hill of Hermitage and vineyards steeply overlooking the Rhône provide the home of Syrah and one of the most famous place names associated with this great grape variety.

    Hermitage, Cornas and Côte Rôtie are full-bodied red wines, while Crozes Hermitage and St Jopeph are generally a touch lighter. Syrah is a hardy grape, growing well in poor soil, such as the granite-based hills and slopes of the Northern Rhône, and asyrah grapeble to adapt to a number of climates. In their infacy, Syrah-based wines smell of blackberry and ground pepper, sometimes mixed with aromas of smoke and toasty oak. In the Northern Rhône, Syrah is the only permitted black grape, while in the south it is used as a blending material and can be just one of several grape varieties making up the final Cuvée. Grenache is more widely grown and used in the south.

     Often requiring time to develop, due to the tannic nature of young Syrah, the wines soften with agem taking on smoky, leathery characteristics. In Australia, a range of styles exist, from light to medium-bodied fruity reds, to the massively fruity, rich, powerhouse wines of the Barossa Valley, Australian Shiraz, which has captured the imagination of wine lovers throughout the world, ranges from the moderate to very expresive, such as Penfond's legendary Grange.

     The grape is known as Syrah in the French growing areas of the Rhône and the south of the countru but as Shiraz in its other locations: Australia, Tuscany in Italy, South Africa, and California

    Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes

    cabernet sauvignon Grapeswhite-grapes

    One of the word's most popular black grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon's deep colour, blackcurrant aroma and flavour is the backbone of many is the backbone of many full-bodid red wines.

    Merlot Grapes

    Merlot Grapes white-grapes 

     A member of the Bordeaux family, Merlot, in constrast to Cabernet Sauvignon, is soft, fruity, fleshy, and less tannic. It's the principal grape variety in the wines of St Emilion and Pomerol, and is often blended with Cabernet Franc.

    Pinot Noir Grapes

    pinot noir Grapes white-grapes 

    A difficult 'customer' described by one well-known winemaker as a 'moving target of a grape variety', on top form Pinot Noir can make the most complex and hedonistic of red wines.   Pinot Noir has fewer colouring pigments than other dark-skinned varieties, so it can appear to be lighter or more aged, when compared to wines such and almost inky on occasions.

    Other Red Grapes

    other red Grapeswhite-grapes

    An extremely versatile variety of grapes, Chenin Blanc is capable of making dry and crisp white wines that are great as an aperitif, through to medium, unctuous and sweet styles. Due to the keeen and vibrant acidity often found in Chenin Blanc grape, they make brilliant food wines and can stay in good shape for many years after the vitange.

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  • Tacoronte-Acentejo Spanish Wine


    Tacoronte-Acentejo wine region

    Tacoronte Acentejo Spanish Label WineThis was the first official DO of the Canary Islands. The territory is situated on the north-western slopes of the extinct volcano of Mount Teide or Pico de Teide (12,198 feet /3,718 metres), where the vineyards are sited on terraces at heights of 656-2,624 feet (200-800 metres).

    The climate is sub-tropical but with strong maritime influences. The vineyards in this area received much more water relative to other parts of the Canaries. The soil consists of underlying volcanic layers covered with a red loam interspersed with some chalk.

  • Tannin wine, tasting, terroir, tourism in Bordeaux

    Tannin wine

    Tasting wine This is a group of organic sub-stances found in the seeds, skin, and stems of grapes. It contributes to the aging potential of red wines, which have more tannin than white wines.


    Tasting wine

    Tasting is an art, a science, and a pleasure. It is also an inexhaustible subject of conversation, even disagreement. Whole books have been devoted to it, both theoretical and technical, but also peppered with amusing anecdotes.

  • Tarragona climate and region

    Tarragona climate and region

    tarragona wine spanishThe winters are mild in the valley but harsher higher up where an almost continental climate rules. The major white grapes of Tarragona are the white Macabeo, Xarel-lo, Parellada, and Garnacha Blanca, with blue Garnacha, Mazuelo (Cariñena), and Ull de Liebre (Tempranillo). Tarragona too is busy experimenting with new varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Chardonnay. The vineyards of Comarca de Falset are restricted exclusively to Cariñena and Garnacha. Six different types of wine are made here. El Camp Blanco and Rosado are dry, fruity wines for every day consumption and these have little to offer except when they are young.J6WAGX3X62Z8

  • Tarragona Spanish wine

    Tarragona Spanish wine

    Tarragona wine and region

    The vineyards of Tarragona were already in existence in Roman times. In those times loads of full-bodied, strong, and sweet fortified Tarragona wines were shipped to Rome. The trade was later taken over by the French at which point Tarragona flourished in the sale of wine in bulk volume. This heavy wine was very suitable for ‘cutting’ various so-called French wines, and trade flourished, especially after Algeria, which was the former main supplier, gained its independence. A small amount of Tarragona Classico is still produced today but in common with the rest of Penedés the emphasis has now increasingly been placed on quality wines. Much has changed since the 1960s but to a less spectacular extent than in Penedés.

  • Taste wine


       Why do we taste wine and what are the advantages of being able to taste successfully?

      Arguably, the most important factor here is to recognise when a wine is in good condition or when a bottle is faulty. This becomes particularly relevant when you are faced with the sort of markups applied in some restaurants. When a sample from an approved bottle id offered to taste wine, you are cheching the conditions of the wine that you hane ordered, not tasting the wine to decide wherher you like it.

    The trees steps

      There are three simple steps to follow when tasting wine: look, smell, and taste. Firstly, you should look at the wine when it's poured, Is it clear and bright? Is it looking in good shape? An excess of brown colour in a white wine may indicate that it has gone off. It's possible to guess the age of a red wine by observing it's rim colour. Tilt the glass slightly and look at the edge of the wine. If you see a purple tint it is probably a young wine while an orange tint is an indication of maturity.

     Swirling the wine a around the glass will relase the aromas and you should take either a large sniff or a small sniff, followed by a large sniff. Does the wine smell clean and fresh and can you identify fruit-related aromas? If not, and you detect musty, wet cardboard-like aromas, you hane probably found a fault. Young wines should always be fruity and appealing on the nose. You should take time to sniff the wine and not rush into tasting wine.

    Tasting wine

    Tasting wine allows you to confirm the condition and characteristics associated with the wine. You should consider the initial taste, the actual taste, and the aftertaste. Have the confidence to reject a bottle which you feel may be tainted and make sure that you assess each bottle ordered individually. Some wine styles, for exemple aromatic whites such as Sauvignon Blanc, are insense and lively an both the nose and palate. Expect to be able to identify lots of fruit and primary aromas. Wines that have matured or developed in the bottle may have a bouquet and flavours such as those associated with dried fruits (prunes, figs, etc), along with savoury nuances. Lurking among all this comolexity there should still be hints of fruit. Some wines over a decade old (for exemple, German Riesling) will suprise you with their amazing vitality and youthful tones.

     Lots of fuss can be generated when the virtues of a vintage are sidcussed and in some cases this is justified. As a generalisation,  if a wine is made from grapes growing in a cool or marginal climate, then vintages can matter. In warmer climates, where there is better consistency in weather patterns, the changes affecting quality are far less significant.

      If you follow the guidelines, concentrate and relax when tasting wine, and forget the fear factor, there is no reason why you cannot become a confident taster wine.

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  • Terra Alta Wines

    Terra Alta Region Spanish wine

    terra alta spanish wineThe region of Terra Alta is unfortunately mainly known for the production of wine in bulk. The area seems comparable with Tarragona and the circumstances for wine-growing of Terra Alta are particular suitable for wine-growing. The soil in this fairly inaccessible mountainous area consists of underlying chalk and clay with a deep top layer of poor soil. This Spanish vineyards are situated at an average height of 1,312 feet (400 metres), on ground which is porous and well drained. The climate is continental with slight Mediterranean influences: long hot summers and cold to very cold winters. While the rest of Cataluña is experimenting with new ways and achieving greater awareness of its wines abroad, Terra Alta appears to lag behind. Perhaps the difficult access and remoteness from Barcelona is the cause. Whatever the reason, a substantial start has recently been made to remedy the situation. J6WAGX3X62Z8

  • The Alto Adige 'crus'

    In addition to the previously mentioned generic wines, Alto Adige also produces wines from strictly defined areas or 'crus'. The quality of these wines is often higher than the ordinary Alto Adige. All the wines named have their own DOC denomination.


    This wine area near Bolzano makes red wine at least 90% Schiava grapes, supplemented as needed with Pinot Nero or Lagrein. The colour is ruby red, with intensity and shade depending on vinification and proportion of grapes. Both nose and taste are mellow and fruity. A delicious but unpretentious wine. Drink at 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    This wine is made in the hills that jut out above the small town of Merano. The red is chiefly made with Schiava grapes is ruby colour, mellow and fruity scented and juicy and pleasant in taste. This is an unpretentious wine that is suitable for all occasions. Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).



    The vineyards of this wonderful wine can be found in the hills around Bolzano. The vines are the Schiava grape, although these may be supplemented with no more than 10% Pinot Nero and/or Lagrein, which contribute their own character. The colour is ruby to intense granite red, the nose subtle and seductive with a hint of wild violets and the taste is mellow and smooth, rounded, juicy, with light bitter almond aftertaste. This gorgeous wine keeps well. Drinking temperature is 57.2- 60.8°F (14- 16°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    The Terlano vineyards run parallel to the Adige river in the province of Bolzano. This white wine is made with Pinot Bianco (WeiEburgunder), Chardonnay, Riesling Halico (Welsch Riesling), Riesling Renano (Rheinriesling), Sylvaner (Silvaner), Riesling x Sylvaner (Mliller-Thurgau), or Sauvignon Blanc.

    These grapes can be used to make single grape wines comprising no less than 90% of them, or ordinary bianco with different proportions, which must be indicated. All of these wines are green-yellow when young, becoming more yellow with age. They have fresh acidity and are very aromatic in both nose and taste. Drink at (46.4-50°F (8- 10°C) except the Chardonnay varietals which are better at 50- 53.6°F (10- 12°C).

    There are also dry (extra brut) or less dry (brut) Spumante versions that are fresh, fruity, aromatic, and elegant. These make an excellent aperitif. Drink at (42.8-46.4°F (6- 8°C). Those wines that originate from the heart of the Terlano area are permitted to add Classico to their name.



    The vineyards of this denominated wine are sited relatively high, some of them above 2,000 feet (600 metres), which demands additional input from the growers. The area is situated close to Bolzano in the Isarco valley. Mainly white wines are produced here using grapes such as Pinot Grigio (Rulander), Sylvaner (Silvaner), Veltliner, Riesling x Sylvaner (Miiller-Thurgau), Kerner, and Traminer Aromatico (Gewürztraminer), and a small amount of red wine from Schiava, Lausner, and Leitacher grapes. The white wine has a green tinge and is fresh, subtle, fruity, and juicy.

    Pinot Grigio and Traminer Aromatico generally make wines with a bigger taste than the other wines.

    Drinking temperature is 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for Sylvaner, Veltliner, and Kerner and 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) for the others. The Klausner Leitacher is ruby red in colour, has a mild nose with freshly acidic and fulsome flavour. Drink it with red meat at 53.6-57.2°F (12-14°C).

     *** the best italian WINE ***


    This is a very traditional wine area that mainly produces whites using Chardonnay, Kerner, Riesling x Sylvaner (Miiller-Thurgau), Pinot Bianco (WeiEburgunder), Pinot Grigio (Rulander), Riesling, and Traminer Aromatico (Gewürztraminer). A small amount of red is made from Schiava (Vernatsch) and Pinot Nero (Blauburgunder). The whites have a green tinge, fresh nose and taste, and are fruity and aromatic. Drink at 46.4-50°F (8-10°C) for Pinot Bianco and Kerner, 50-53.6°F (10-12°C) for Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Traminer Aromatico, and Miiller-Thurgau. The Schiava reds are ruby coloured, taste and smell delicious and fruity, and are suitable for serving throughout a meal. Drinking temperature is 53.6- 57.2°F (12- 14°C).

    Pinot Nero reds are also ruby hued with a trace of orange and their characteristic nose has both vegetal and animal notes. The taste is filled with flavour but is mellow and well-balanced. There is a discernible bitterness in the aftertaste. Drink at 53.6-57.2°F (12-14°C).



    This is another well-known quality wine from the Alto Adige. As indicated in the name, the vineyards are close to Lake Caldaro. Superb reds are produced here using various types of Schiava grape, sometimes supplemented with Pinot Nero or Lagrein.

    *** the best italian WINE ***

     The colour varies between bright ruby and dark red while bouquet and taste are mellow, fruity, and elegant. A hint of bitter almond can be detected in the aftertaste.There are also Classico, and Classico Superiore from the heart of the area. The superior wine has 1 % more alcohol than the ordinary Caldaro and Caldaro Classico. Drink at 53.6- 57.2°F (12-14°C).

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    Balaton Hungarian wine REGION

    Balaton wineyardThe area surrounding Lake Balaton is ideal for summer holidays. The lake itself is a watersports paradise. The lake is 77 km (48 miles) long and 14 km (9 miles) wide as its broadest point. The water is only some 3-4 metres (10-13 feet) deep except around the Bay of Tihany where the lake can be 12 metres (39 feet) deep.

    The climate is mild in winter and hot in summer (above 25°C). The water temperature varies in the summer between 20 and 26°C (68-78.8°F). In addition to still wines, the wine areas around Lake Balaton also produce several very acceptable sparkling wines.